IMPTAM - Inner Magnetosphere Particle Transport and Acceleration Model

The inner magnetosphere particle transport and acceleration model (IMPTAM), developed by Ganushkina et al. (2001, 2005, 2006), follows distributions of ions and electrons with arbitrary pitch angles from the plasma sheet to the inner L-shell regions with energies reaching up to hundreds of keVs in time-dependent magnetic and electric fields.

We trace a distribution of particles in the guiding center, or drift, approximation, in which we can picture the motion of a charged particle as displacements of its guiding center, or the center of the circular Larmor orbit of a moving particle. The guiding center theory assumes that the electromagnetic fields are known and can be used in geophysical plasmas, where the external field is strong and will not be changed much by the motion of the particle themselves.